The history of Denmark as a unified kingdom began in the 8th century, but historic documents describe the geographic area and the people living there—the Danes —as early as AD. These early documents include the writings of Jordanes and Procopius. With the Christianization of the Danes c. Denmark's history has particularly been influenced by its geographical location between the North and Baltic seas, a strategically and economically important placement between Sweden and Germanyat the center of mutual struggles for control of the Baltic Sea dominium maris baltici.
After the eventual cession of Norway inDenmark retained control of the old Norwegian colonies of the Faroe IslandsGreenland and Iceland. During the 20th century, Iceland gained independence, Greenland and the Faroese became integral parts of the Kingdom of Denmark and North Schleswig reunited with Denmark in after a referendum.
The Scandinavian region has a rich prehistoryhaving been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12, years, since the end of the last ice age.
During the ice age, all of Scandinavia was covered by glaciers most of the time, except for the southwestern parts of what we now know as Denmark. When the ice began retreating, the barren tundras were soon inhabited by reindeer and elk, and Ahrenburg and Swiderian hunters from the south followed them here to hunt occasionally.
The geography then was very different from what we know today. Sea levels were much lower; the island of Great Britain was connected by a land bridge to mainland Europe and the large area between Great Britain and the Jutlandic peninsula - now beneath the North Sea and known as Doggerland - was inhabited by tribes of hunter-gatherers.
As the climate warmed up, forceful rivers of meltwater started to flow and shape the virgin lands, and more stable flora and fauna gradually began emerging in Scandinavia, and Denmark in particular.
The first human settlers to inhabit Denmark and Scandinavia permanently were the Maglemosian peopleresiding in seasonal camps and exploiting the land, sea, rivers and lakes. It was not until around 6, BC that the approximate geography of Denmark as we know it today had been shaped.
Denmark has some unique natural conditions for preservation of artifacts, providing a rich and diverse archeological record from which to understand the prehistoric cultures of this area. The Weichsel glaciation covered all of Denmark most of the time, except the western coasts of Jutland.
It ended around 13, years ago, allowing humans to move back into the previously ice-covered territories and establish permanent habitation. During the first post-glacial millennia, the landscape gradually changed from tundra to light forest, and varied fauna including now-extinct megafauna appeared. The first inhabitants of this early post-glacial landscape in the so-called Boreal periodwere very small and scattered populations living from hunting of reindeer and other land mammals and gathering whatever fruits the climate was able to offer.
Around 8, BC the temperature rose drastically, now with summer temperatures around 15 degrees Celsius, and the landscape changed into dense forests of aspenbirch and pine and the reindeer moved north, while aurochs and elk arrived from the south. The Koelbjerg Man is the oldest known bog body in the world and also the oldest set of human bones found in Denmark dated to the time of the Maglemosian culture around 8, BC. Now boarred deerand roe deer also began to abound. Eight of the 22 had died before reaching 20 years of age - testifying to the hardness of hunter-gatherer life in the cold north.
With the rising temperatures, sea levels also rose, and during the Atlantic periodDenmark evolved from a contiguous landmass around 11, BC to a series of islands by 4, BC.
The inhabitants then shifted to a seafood based diet, which allowed the population to increase. Agricultural settlers made inroads around 3, BC.Denmarkcountry occupying the peninsula of Jutland Jyllandwhich extends northward from the centre of continental western Europeand an archipelago of more than islands to the east of the peninsula.
Along with Norway and SwedenDenmark is a part of the northern European region known as Scandinavia.
Though small in territory and population, Denmark has nonetheless played a notable role in European history. In prehistoric times, Danes and other Scandinavians reconfigured European society when the Vikings undertook marauding, trading, and colonizing expeditions.
In later centuries, shaped by geographic conditions favouring maritime industries, Denmark established trading alliances throughout northern and western Europe and beyond, particularly with Great Britain and the United States. Making an important contribution to world cultureDenmark also developed humane governmental institutions and cooperative, nonviolent approaches to problem solving. This article covers principally the land and people of continental Denmark.
Each area is distinctive in history, language, and culture. Home rule was granted to the Faroes in and to Greenland inthough foreign policy and defense remain under Danish control. Other than this connection, all the frontiers with surrounding countries are maritime, including that with the United Kingdom to the west across the North Sea. Eastward in the Baltic Sea lies the Danish island of Bornholm.
Denmark proper is a lowland area that lies, on average, not more than feet 30 metres above sea level. The basic contours of the Danish landscape were shaped at the end of the Pleistocene Epoch i.
This great glacial mass withdrew temporarily during several warmer interstadial periods, but it repeatedly returned to cover the land until it retreated to the Arctic north for the last time about 10, years ago.
As a result, the barren layers of chalk and limestone that earlier constituted the land surface acquired a covering of soil that built up as the Weichsel retreated, forming low, hilly, and generally fertile moraines that diversify the otherwise flat landscape.
The ice front is clearly marked in the contrast between the flat western Jutland region, composed of sands and gravels strewn by meltwaters that poured west from the shrinking ice sheet, and the fertile loam plains and hills of eastern and northern Denmark, which become markedly sandier toward the prehistoric ice front.
See also Scandinavian Ice Sheet. In northern Jutland, where the long Lim Fjord separates the northern tip Vendsyssel-Thy from the rest of the peninsula, there are numerous flat areas of sand and gravel, some of which became stagnant bogs.
Monarchy of Denmark
Burials and ritual deposits interred in these bogs in antiquity—especially during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age —have been recovered by archaeologists. In more recent centuries these bogs were a valued source of peat for fuel. In the 20th century they were drained to serve as grazing areas for livestock. In places along the northern and southwestern coasts of Jutland, salt marshes were formed by the evaporation of an inland sea that existed during the late Permian Epoch approximately to million years ago.Denmark proper, which is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, consists of a peninsula, Jutlandand an archipelago of named islands[N 2]  with the largest being ZealandFunen and the North Jutlandic Island.
The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway[N 11] and is bordered to the south by Germany. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 8th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch untilDenmark—Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empireending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movementswhich were defeated in the First Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War Ihowever, in the northern half of Schleswig became Danish again.
In Aprila German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from until the German surrender in May An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a highly developed mixed economy.
The Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 Juneending the absolute monarchywhich had begun in It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagenthe nation's capitallargest cityand main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realmdevolving powers to handle internal affairs.Fall of Malacca
Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in ; in Greenland home rule was established in and further autonomy in Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community now the EU inbut negotiated certain opt-outs ; it retains its own currency, the krone. Denmark has close ties to its Scandinavian neighbours also linguistically, with the Danish language being partially mutually intelligible with both Norwegian and Swedish. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and socially developed countries in the world.
The etymology of the name "Denmark", the relationship between "Danes" and "Denmark", and the emergence of Denmark as a unified kingdom are topics of continuous scholarly debate. Most etymological dictionaries and handbooks derive "Dan" from a word meaning "flat land",  related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave". The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stoneswhich are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old c.
The earliest archaeological finds in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from ,—, BC.EU Member State. The Monarchy of Denmarkcolloquially known as the Danish Monarchyis a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom of Denmark was already consolidated in the 8th century, whose rulers are consistently referred to in Frankish sources and in some late Frisian sources as "kings" reges. Under the rule of King Gudfred in the Kingdom may have included all the major provinces of medieval Denmark.
Originally an elective monarchyit became hereditary only in the 17th century during the reign of Frederick III. A decisive transition to a constitutional monarchy occurred in with the writing of the first Constitution.
The Danish Monarchy is constitutional and as such, the role of the monarch is defined and limited by the Constitution of Denmark. According to the constitution, the ultimate executive authority over the government of Denmark is still by and through the monarch's royal reserve powers ; in practice these powers are only used according to laws enacted in Parliament or within the constraints of convention. The monarch is, in practice, limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the prime minister.
The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonialdiplomatic and representational duties. Danish regnal names have traditionally since alternated between "Frederick" Frederik and "Christian"; Margrethe has taken the place of a Christian, and accordingly her heir apparent is Crown Prince Frederik.
The Danish monarchy is over years old, founded in the 8th century or earlier. The line of kings of the modern kingdom of Denmark can be traced back to Harthacnut father of Gorm the Old Old Norse : Gorm den Gamlewho reigned in the early 10th century. The Danes were united or more likely reunited and officially Christianized in CE by Harald Bluetooththe story of which is recorded on the Jelling stones.
History of Denmark
The exact extent of Harald's kingdom is unknown, although it is reasonable to believe that it stretched from the defensive line of Dannevirkeincluding the Viking city of Hedebyacross Jutlandthe Danish isles and into southern present day Sweden; Scania and perhaps Halland.
Furthermore, the Jelling stones attests that Harald had also "won" Norway. The son of Harald, Sweyn Forkbeardmounted a series of wars of conquest against England, which was completed by Sweyn's son Cnut the Great by the middle of the eleventh century. The reign of Cnut represented the peak of the Danish Viking age; his North Sea Empire included EnglandDenmarkNorway and held strong influence over the north-eastern coast of Germany.
Richeza thus was the female founder of the House of Oldenburg. Originally the Danish monarchy was elective, but in practice the eldest son of the reigning monarch was elected. Later a Coronation Charter was signed by the king to restrict the powers of the Danish monarch.
The war became a disaster for two reasons: Primarily, because Denmark's new powerful ally, the Netherlandsremained neutral as Denmark was the aggressor and Sweden the defender. Secondly, the Belts froze over in a rare occurrence during the winter ofallowing King Charles X Gustav of Sweden to lead his armies across the ice to invade Zealand.
But the Second Northern War was not yet over. Three months after the peace treaty was signed, Charles X Gustav held a council of war where he decided to simply wipe Denmark from the map and unite all of Scandinavia under his rule. Once again the Swedish army arrived outside Copenhagen.
However, this time the Danes did not panic or surrender. Instead, they decided to fight and prepared to defend Copenhagen. Frederick III had stayed in his capital and now encouraged the citizens of Copenhagen to resist the Swedes, by saying he would "die in his nest", rather than to evacuate to safety in Norway. Furthermore, this unprovoked declaration of war by Sweden finally triggered the alliance that Denmark—Norway had with the Netherlandsand a powerful Dutch fleet was sent to Copenhagen with vital supplies and reinforcements, which saved the city from being captured during the Swedish attack.
Charles X Gustav suddenly died of an illness in earlywhile planning an invasion of Norway. Following his death, Sweden made peace in the Treaty of Copenhagen. This treaty established the boundaries between Norway, Denmark, and Sweden that still exist today. Absolutism was introduced in — and the elective monarchy was de jure transformed into an hereditary monarchy. Male primogeniture succession was laid down in law in the Royal Decree of When he succeeded to the throne in JanuaryKing Frederick VII was almost at once met by the demands for a constitution and an end to absolutism.The Demak Sultanate was a Javanese Muslim state located on Java 's north coast in Indonesiaat the site of the present day city of Demak.
A port fief to the Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Muslim traders from ChinaGujaratArabia and also from Islamic kingdoms in the region, such as Samudra Pasai and Champa.
The sultanate was the first Muslim state in Java, and once dominated most of the northern coast of Java and southern Sumatra. Despite its short period, the sultanate played an important role in the establishment of Islam in Indonesiaespecially on Java and neighboring area.
Demak's origins are uncertain although it was apparently founded in the last quarter of the 15th century by a Muslim, known as Raden Patah from Arabic name: "Fatah", also called "Pate Rodin" in Portuguese records, or "Jin Bun" in Chinese record. There is evidence that he had Chinese ancestry and perhaps was named Cek Ko-po. Raden Patah's son, or possibly his brother, led Demak's brief domination in Java. He was known as Trenggana, and later Javanese traditions say he gave himself the title Sultan.
It appears that Trenggana had two reigns— c — and c ——between which his brother in law, Yunus of Jepara occupied the throne. Before emergence of Demak, northern coast of Java was seat of many Muslim communities, both foreign merchants and Javanese.
The Islamisation process gained momentum from decline of Majapahit authority. Following fall of Majapahit capital to usurper from Kediri, Raden Patah declared Demak independence from Majapahit overlordship so did nearly all northern Javanese ports. Demak was a busy harbor with trade connection to Malacca and the Spices islands. It was located at the end of a channel that separated Java and Muria Island the channel is now filled and Muria joined with Java.
From the 15th century until the 18th century, the channel was wide enough and important waterway for ships traveling along northern Javanese coast to the Spices islands. In the channel also located Serang river, which enabled access to rice producing interior of Java.
This strategic location enabled Demak to rise as a leading trading center in Java. Demak was the main exporter of rice to Malacca.
Its supremacy also enhanced with claim of direct descent of Raden Patah to Majapahit royalty and his marriages ties with neighboring city-states. The foundation of Demak is traditionally attributed to Raden Patah r.Prestige of the empire obtained from Walisanga, which consists of great scholars to nine people, most early Islamic preachers on the island of Java.
For the assistance of other areas that had already embraced Islam as Jepara, Tuban and Gresik, Raden Patah as duke of Islam in Majapahit Demak cuts loose with time, the Majapahit indeed are in a very weak condition. Princess is beautiful and smart was soon a special place in the hearts of kings. King UB is subject to all the will of the princess's beauty, to bring the many contradictions in the palace majapahit.
Because the princess was berakidah monotheism. At that time, UB already has a consort who came from Champa now called frangipanistill a relative of King of Champa. The empress has a mismatch with the daughter of Emperor Yan Lu. Finally, with a heavy heart the king to get rid of this beautiful princess from the palace.
In case of pregnancy, the princess granted to duke Pelembang, Arya Damar. Well that's where Raden Patah born from the womb of the princess of China. Minor name is Prince Jimbun raden patah. In his youth raden patah education backgrounds and political nobility. After he returned to majapahit adults. Raden patah has a younger brother mother, but a different father. When entering their teens, raden patah with his younger brother sailed to Java to study at Ampel Denta.
They landed at the port of Tuban in the year AD Fracture had lived some time in Ampel Denta, along with Muslim merchants at the time. Once considered to be graduating, raden cleric believed to be Patah and made settlements in the NCO. He was accompanied by the Sultan of Palembang, Arya Dilah soldiers. In NCO, Fractures also founded the boarding school. Religious broadcasting carried out in line with the development of science.
Slowly, the area became the center of the crowd and commerce. Raden ruled Demak broken up inand Demak become the center spread of Islam in Java since the government. In consecutiveonly three sultans Demak whose name is quite famous, Raden Patah Ie as the first king, the Duke of Muhammad Yunus or Pati Unus as the second king, and the Sultan Trenggana, brother Pati Unus, as the third king In the reign of Prince Patah, Demak successful in various fields, including the expansion and defense of the kingdom, Islam and his experience in development, and implementation of consultation and cooperation between scholars and umara ruler.
Raden Patah success in the expansion and defense of the kingdom can be seen when he conquer Girindra Wardana who won the throne of Majapahittook this to be over power majapahit. In addition, the fracture resistance terhada also held the Portuguese, who had occupied Malacca and to disturb demak.Denmark—Norway Danish and Norwegian : Danmark—Norgealso known as the Dano—Norwegian Realmthe Oldenburg Monarchy ,or the Oldenburg realmswas an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmarkthe Kingdom of Norway including the Norwegian overseas possessions: the Faroe IslandsIcelandGreenlandand the Norwegian possessionsthe Duchy of Schleswigand the Duchy of Holstein.
The state also claimed sovereignty over two historical peoples: Wends and Gutes. The state's inhabitants were mainly DanesNorwegiansand Germansand also included FaroeseIcelanders and Inuit in the Norwegian overseas possessions, a Sami minority in northern Norway, as well as indigenous peoples and enslaved Africans in the colonies. Margrete I was ruler of Norway from her son's death in until her own death in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden established and formed the Kalmar Union in Following Sweden's departure inthe union was effectively dissolved.
Even afterDenmark—Norway consisted of three formally separate parts, and Norway kept its separate laws and some institutions, and separate coinage and army.
The treaty however, was not recognised by Norway, which successfully resisted the attempt in the Swedish—Norwegian War. Norway thereafter entered into a much looser personal union with Sweden as one of two equal kingdoms untilwhen the union was dissolved and both kingdoms became independent. The term "Kingdom of Denmark" is sometimes used to include both countries in the period, since the political and economic power emanated from the Danish capital, Copenhagen.
These terms cover the "royal territories" of the Oldenburgs as it was inexcluding the "ducal territories" of Schleswig and Holstein.
The term "Denmark—Norway" reflects the historical and legal roots of the union. It is adopted from the Oldenburg dynasty's official title. Denmark and Norway, sometimes referred to as the "Twin Realms" Tvillingrigerne of Denmark—Norway, had separate legal codes and currencies, and mostly separate governing institutions.
Following the introduction of absolutism inthe centralisation of government meant a concentration of institutions in Copenhagen. This allowed Norway to further secure itself militarily for the future through closer ties with the capital Copenhagen.
The term " Sweden—Finland " is sometimes, although with less justification, applied to the contemporary Swedish realm between and Finland was never a separate kingdom, and was completely integrated with Sweden, while Denmark was the dominant component in a personal union.
Throughout the time of Denmark—Norway, it continuously had possession over various overseas territories. From the 17th century, the kingdoms acquired colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and India. At its height the empire was about 2, Denmark—Norway maintained numerous colonies from the 17th to 19th centuries over various parts around India.
Colonies included the town of Tranquebar and Serampore. The last towns it had control over were sold to the United Kingdom in Rights in the Nicobar Islands were sold in This colony was one of the longest-lived of Denmark, until it was sold to the United States in It became the U.
Virgin Islands. The last remaining forts were sold to the United Kingdom in The three kingdoms then united in the Kalmar Union in Sweden broke out of this union and re-entered it several times, untilwhen Sweden finally left the Union, leaving Denmark—Norway including overseas possessions in the North Atlantic and the island of Saaremaa in modern Estonia. The outbreak of the Northern Seven Years' War in is mainly attributed [ by whom?
When the Danish-Norwegian king Christian III reigned — included the traditionally Swedish insignia of three crowns into his own coat of arms, the Swedes interpreted this as a Danish claim over Sweden.
Denmark—Norway then carried out some naval attacks on Sweden, which effectively started the war. After seven years of fighting, the conflict concluded in with a status quo ante bellum.
Swedish king Charles IX 's way of accomplishing this was to try to set up a new trade route through Lapland and northern Norway. Denmark and King Christian IV of Denmark protested against the Swedish actions, as they had no intentions of letting another independent trade route open, Christian IV also had an intent of forcing Sweden to rejoin its union with Denmark.